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Newborns Infants And Toddlers

1 to 2 Years: Safety for Your Child
Did you know that injuries are the leading cause of death of children younger than 4 years in the United States? Most of these injuries can be prevented.
1 to 4 Years, From (Part 1): Framingham Safety Survey
1 to 4 Years, From (Part 2): Framingham Safety Survey
2 to 4 Years: Safety for Your Child
TIPP SHEETS: Injuries are the leading cause of death in children younger than 4 years in the United States, and most of these injuries can be prevented. Firearms in the home, poisons, falls, burns, drowning, and poor safety practices while driving with your child in a car all pose serious threats. These issues should be approached with increased caution.
6 to 12 Months: Safety for Your Child
Did you know that hundreds of children younger than 1 year die every year in the United States because of injuries — most of which can be prevented?
A Guide to Your Child’s Medicines
Giving medicine in the right way can help your child feel better and get well. However, medicine information and labels can be confusing. Read on for information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about prescription and over-the-counter medicines, how to give medicine in the right way, and how to prevent medicine mistakes.
A Parent's Guide to Water Safety
Drowning is one of the top causes of injury and death in children. Children can drown in pools, rivers, ponds, lakes, or oceans. They can even drown in a few inches of water in bathtubs, toilets, and large buckets.
Acute Ear Infections and Your Child
Next to the common cold, an ear infection is the most common childhood illness. In fact, most children have at least one ear infection by the time they are 3 years old. Many ear infections clear up without causing any lasting problems.
Adoption
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Parents looking to adopt can choose from domestic adoption (either open or closed) or international adoption (which is almost always closed). Studies show that adopted children are more likely to grow up well-adjusted and confident if they have been given age-appropriate information about their birth parents.
Adoption: Guidelines for Parents
Adopting a child into your family can create many different emotions—from excitement and delight to concern or fear. While adopting a child is a unique and wonderful experience, it can bring special issues and challenges to your family. Read on to get a better understanding about how adoption plays a role in your child's life and how you can help your child understand his or her history of adoption.
Air Bag Safety
An air bag can save your life. However, air bags and young children are a dangerous combination. The following information will help keep you and your children safe:
Allergies in Children
Allergy describes a condition involving the immune system that causes sneezing and itching, chronic rashes, wheezing, or even life-threatening allergic reactions. Whether minor or serious, there are things you can do to prevent or control most allergic problems. The more you know about allergies—the symptoms, causes, and treatments—the more prepared you will be to help your child. Read on to find out more.
Anemia and Your Young Child: Guidelines for Parents: Adapted from Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5
Anemia is a condition that is sometimes found in young children. It can make your child feel cranky, tired, and weak. Though these symptoms may worry you, most cases of anemia are easily treated. This brochure explains the different types of anemia and its causes, symptoms, and treatments.
Antibiotics and Your Child
Parents need to know that using antibiotics when they are not the right medicine will not help and may even cause harm to children.
Appropriate Newborn Hospital Stays
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Mothers are often anxious to take their baby home with them from the hospital immediately after birth, but a longer hospital stay increases the chance that both mother and child will leave healthy and without complication. An average hospital stay post birth is 48 to 96 hours in order to properly monitor both mother and child.
ASDs Family Handout—Toilet Training
Children with ASDs often have delayed development or may be obsessed with their own routines or anxious about learning a new skill. They may not understand imitation or the words parents use in toilet training.
Asthma and Your Child
This publication was written by the American Academy of Pediatrics to inform parents about asthma. It includes information about asthma symptoms, triggers, treatments, medicines, and how to communicate with your child's school.
Baby Tooth Care
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Daily dental cleaning should start as soon as your child's first tooth appears. Tooth brushing should begin at age two, and your child will need some help at first. Use a soft brush and only a small amount of toothpaste until they learn not to swallow it.
Baby Walkers: What You Need to Know
Most walker injuries happen while adults are watching. Parents or caregivers simply cannot respond quickly enough. A child in a walker can move more than 3 feet in 1 second! That is why walkers are never safe to use, even with an adult close by.
Babysitting Reminders
Parents should: Meet the siiter and check references and training in advance. | Be certain the sitter has had first aid training and knows CPR. | Be sure the sitter is at least 13 years old and mature enough to handle common emergencies.
Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play
Remember … Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play
Bathing Your Newborn
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Bathing newborns sometimes makes parents nervous. Until the umbilical cord falls off, you should only give your newborn sponge baths. Be sure to use gentle soaps. Since newborns do not get very dirty, you only need to bathe them two or three times a week.
Bathroom Safety
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: The bathroom can be one of the most dangerous rooms in the house for small children. Be sure to take extra steps to child-proof your bathroom in order to prevent injury.
Bedwetting
Did you know that there are about 5 million children in the United States who wet the bed? If your child wets the bed, he or she is not alone.
Bedwetting
Most children learn to use the toilet between 2 and 4 years of age. Even after children are toilet-trained, they may wet the bed until they are older. It's even common for 6-year-olds to wet the bed once in a while. Some children still wet the bed at age 12.
Birth to 6 Months: Safety for Your Child
Did you know that hundreds of children younger than 1 year die every year in the United States because of injuries — most of which could be prevented?
Born Early (Preterm): At the Hospital
Preterm (premature) birth occurs in about 11 to 13 percent of pregnancies in the US. Almost 60 percent of twins, triplets, and other multiple deliveries result in preterm births.
Bottlefeeding Tips
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: It is recommended that mothers breastfeed for the first year of life, but if bottlefeeding is necessary, be sure never to microwave the bottle. Microwaving heats the bottle unevenly. Instead heat the bottle in hot water.
Breastfeeding Record for Baby’s First Week
Breastfeeding Your Baby: Getting Started
Getting ready for the birth of your baby is an exciting and busy time. One of the most important decisions you will make is how to feed your baby.
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 1 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 12 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 15 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 18 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 2 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 2 to 5 Day (First Week) Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family.
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 2 Year Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 2½ Year Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 4 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 6 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Bright Futures Parent Handout: 9 Month Visit
Here are some suggestions from Bright Futures experts that may be of value to your family
Car Safety Seat Checkup
Using a car safety seat correctly makes a big difference. Even the right seat for your child's size may not properly protect your child in a crash unless it is used correctly. So take a minute to check to be sure.
Car Safety Seats 2017 Guide
One of the most important jobs you have as a parent is keeping your child safe when riding in a vehicle. Each year thousands of young children are killed or injured in car crashes. Proper use of car safety seats helps keep children safe. But with so many different car safety seats on the market, it’s no wonder many parents find this overwhelming.
Car Safety Seats 2017 List
Care of the Uncircumcised Penis
At birth, boys have skin that covers the end of the penis, called the foreskin. One choice you will make for your new baby boy is whether to have him circumcised. Circumcision is a surgical procedure that removes the foreskin, exposing the tip of the penis.
Caring for Your Child's Teeth
Almost 1 in 4 children in America will have a cavity (KA-vuh-dee) before turning 4 years of age! That's why it's very important for parents to know how to care for their children's teeth.
Childproofing Your Home
Children are naturally curious and love to explore. Young children especially like to explore by putting things in their mouths. Before or as soon as children begin crawling or walking, parents and caregivers need to take extra steps to make sure harmful items are out of reach, out of sight, and locked up if possible.
Choking Prevention and First Aid for Infants and Children
When children begin crawling, or eating table foods, parents must be aware of the dangers and risks of choking. Children younger than 5 years can easily choke on food and small objects.
Choosing Child Care
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Finding childcare for you child involves making a lot of decisions, but be sure to look out for basic safety concerns. Before deciding on a method of childcare, be sure to access the environment in which you will be leaving your child for increased safety risks, such as easy access to stairwells or window sills.
Choosing Quality Child Care: What's Best for Your Family?
Finding high-quality child care is very important but not always easy. Your choice will play a key role in your child's health and development. Read on for more information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about child care options to help you in your search for what's best for your family.
Circumcision: Information for Parents
Parents have different opinions about newborn circumcision based on medical, religious, cultural, and ethnic traditions, and personal reasons. Some parents choose circumcision. Some parents do not choose circumcision. Parents who are undecided should talk with their child's doctor before their child is born. They can learn about the benefits and risks of circumcision to help them choose what is best for their son. Read on for more information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about circumcision.
Colds
Most children get 8 to 10 colds before they are 2 years old. Most colds come and go without any big problems.
Common Childhood Infections
Most infections are caused by germs called viruses and bacteria. While you may be able to keep germs from spreading, you can't always keep your child from getting sick. It is important for parents to know how to keep their children healthy and what to do when they get sick. Read on to learn more from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about common childhood infections—signs and symptoms, treatments, and when to call your child's doctor.
Common Feed Patterns in Nursing
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Newborns often have their own style when it comes to nursing. There are many different attitudes that infants may exhibit when breastfeeding and identifying your child's eating patterns will allow you to better understand when they are hungry.
Constipation
Constipation (kahn-sti-PAY-shun) is common. Children with constipation have stools (poops) that are hard, dry, and difficult or painful to get out. Constipation can be treated.
Croup
Croup is an infection that makes the inside of your child's throat swell up. This makes it hard for your child to breathe. It can be scary for both parents and children.
Croup and Your Young Child
Croup is a common illness in young children. It can be scary for parents as well as children. Read on for more information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about croup, including types, causes, symptoms, and treatments.
Crying and Your Baby: How to Calm a Fussy or Colicky Baby
Babies cry for different reasons. Crying is one way babies try to tell us what they need. They may be hungry, have a soiled diaper, or just want a little attention. (See checklist at the bottom.) If a crying baby cannot be comforted, the cause may be colic. Read on about colic and ways to calm a crying baby.
Dangers of Secondhand Smoke
Even if you don’t smoke, breathing in someone else’s smoke can be deadly too. Secondhand smoke causes about 3,000 deaths from lung cancer and tens of thousands of deaths from heart disease to nonsmoking adults in the United States each year.
Dealing with Toddler Aggression
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Aggressive behavior in toddlers is a normal response to frustration that should be handled with reinforcements for positive behavior, opportunities for physical play, and age-appropriate punishments.
Diaper Rash
Most babies get diaper rash, but it is usually not serious. Read on to find out more about what causes diaper rash and how to treat it.
Diarrhea and Your Child
Diarrhea is the passage of watery stools.
Diarrhea, Vomiting, and Water Loss (Dehydration)
Diarrhea (loose poop) and vomiting, or “throwing up,” are why many parents call the doctor. Your child's doctor may call this gastroenteritis (GAS- troh-en-tur-EYE-tis). These symptoms are often caused by a virus*.
Ear Infections
Ear infections (in-FEK-shuns) in children are common. Most kids get at least one ear infection by the time they are 3 years old. Most ear infections clear up without any lasting problems. Your child's doctor may also call an ear infection otitis (oh-TYE-tis) media.
Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)
Eczema is a chronic skin problem that causes dry, red, itchy skin. It is also called atopic dermatitis or AD. Anyone can get eczema, but it is most common in babies to young adults.
Family Room Safety
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: The family room is often the center for family fun, but parents should make sure that this room is properly child-proofed. Common house-hold items can pose a serious threat for small children, so make sure that the family room is truly a safe zone for the whole family.
Febrile Seizures
In some children, fevers can trigger seizures. Febrile seizures occur in 2% to 5% of all children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years. Seizures, sometimes called “fits” or “spells,” are frightening, but they usually are harmless. Read on for information from the American Academy of Pediatrics that will help you understand febrile seizures and what happens if your child has one.
Feeding Kids Right Isn't Always Easy: Tips for Preventing Food Hassles
Young children need nutrients from a variety of foods to stay healthy. But what if your child only eats macaroni and cheese or will not eat any vegetables?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Approximately 5,000 children are born each year with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Many of these children will develop other learning or behaviorial problems. Women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy should avoid drinking any alcohol to prevent Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Fever
Fever is a sign that your child is fighting an infection. It is usually harmless. Your child's fever should go away in about 3 days. If it doesn’t, call your child's doctor.
Fever and Your Child
A fever is usually a sign that the body is fighting an illness or infection. Fevers are generally harmless. In fact, they can be considered a good sign that your child's immune system is working and the body is trying to heal itself. While it is important to look for the cause of a fever, the main purpose for treating it is to help your child feel better if he is uncomfortable or has pain.
Fever Basics
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Not all fevers should cause worry, and many don't need treatment. A fever is the body's way of activating your child's immune system. However, if other symptoms appear with the fever, call your pediatrician.
Fifth Disease
Fifth disease, also called erythema infectiosum, is usually not a serious infection. Its most notable symptom is a bright red patch or rash on your child's cheeks. It is caused by a virus called parvovirus B19 and can be spread from one person to another through droplets or secretions (eg, saliva, sputum). It can also be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. The virus can cause serious illness in a fetus or in any child who has a certain type of anemia (low red blood cell count) such as sickle cell anemia.
First Aid
TIPP SHEETS: This two-page guide describes basic first aid steps for the following medical situations: eye injuries, fractures and sprains, fever, head injuries, bites and stings, poisoning, seizures, fainting, broken teeth, burns and scalds, nosebleeds, skin wounds, and choking. It also includes detailed instructions for administering CPR to infants and older children.
First Year of Life, The: Framingham Safety Survey
Flu, The
The flu (influenza) is an illness caused by a virus. It affects the whole body. This is not the same as what we often call the “stomach flu.”
Fun in the Sun: Keep Your Family Safe
Warm, sunny days are wonderful. It's great to exercise outside, and the sun feels good on your skin. But what feels good can harm you and your family. Read on for information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about how to keep your family safe from the sun’s harmful rays.
Getting Enough Calcium
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Calcium is an important part of any daily diet. Lack of calcium can lead to weak bones and other health problems later in life. Pediatricians should screen children to access their daily calcium consumption at ages 2 or 3, 8 or 9, and yearly in the teen and preteen years.
Growing Independence: Tips for Parents of Young Children
Haemophilus influenzae Type b
(Please see the related Vaccine Information Statement, Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine: What You Need to Know)
Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection most often seen in infants and children younger than 10 years. It is most commonly caused by coxsackievirus A16. Coxsackieviruses are one type of enterovirus.
Hepatitis B Vaccine: What Parents Need to Know
Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Lifelong HBV infection can lead to liver cancer or scarring of the liver (cirrhosis). More than 1 million people in the United States are living with lifelong HBV infection. Anyone can get infected with HBV, including your child.
Hepatitis C
About 4 million Americans are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and many do not even know it. Anyone can get infected with HCV, including children.
Highchair Safety
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Falls are the most serious danger associated with high chairs. Keep this in mind when shopping for a high chair and choose one with a base that is wide enough so that the chair won't tip over easily. Always keep your child strapped in and never leave your child unattended when using a high chair.
Hip Dysplasia (Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip)
In resistant cases or in older children, hip dysplasia may need to be treated with a combination of braces, casts, traction, or surgery. Your child will be admitted to the hospital if surgery is necessary. After surgery, your child will be placed in a hip spica cast for about 3 months. A hip spica cast is a hard cast that immobilizes the hips and keeps them in the correct position. When the cast is removed, your child will need to wear a removable hip brace for several more months.
Home Safety Checklist
Is your house a safe place for your child to live and play? The following safety checklist can help you prevent serious injuries or even death. Though it addresses common safety concerns, it's important to remember that every house is different and no checklist is complete. Because there may be other safety concerns in your house, a more thorough safety check is recommended at least every 6 months.
Home Water Hazards for Young Children
Each year many young children drown in swimming pools, other bodies of water, and standing water around the home such as
How Do Infants Learn?
How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby
Baby teeth are important. If baby teeth are lost too early, the teeth that are left may move and not leave any room for adult teeth to come in. Also, if tooth decay is not prevented, it can be costly to treat, cause pain, and lead to life-threatening infections.
How to Take Your Child's Temperature
Your temperature (TEM-pruh-chur) is how warm or cold your body is. Normal temperature for a child is 98°F to 99°F or 37°C. The small circle (°) means “degrees.” Anything over 100.4°F or 38°C is a fever. (See “Words to Know” for “F” and “C.”)
Imaging Tests: A Look Inside Your Child's Body
If your pediatrician isn't sure what the cause of your child's illness or injury is, imaging tests may be needed. Imaging tests are used to “look” inside the body. They can help diagnose injuries and illnesses from broken bones to cancer. Some tests can even find problems before symptoms appear. Read this handout to learn more about imaging tests.
Immunizations: What You Need To Know
Immunizations have helped children stay healthy for more than 50 years. They are safe and they work. In fact, serious side effects are no more common than those from other types of medication. Vaccinations have reduced the number of infections from vaccine-preventable diseases by more than 90%! Yet many parents still question their safety because of misinformation they've received. That's why it's important to turn to a reliable and trusted source, including your child's doctor, for information. The following are answers to common questions parents have about immunizations.
Importance of Play, The
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Make sure that free play remains a part of your child's life by providing them time for unstructured and creative activities. This free play will help them develop skills that they will need later in life.
Importance of Tummy Time, The
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: It is important that your infant is given some time each day to lie on their stomach. This tummy time should take place when your infant is awake and alert. This will allow them to strengthen their neck muscles.
Infant Furniture: Cribs
Infants and Constipation
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: All babies are different and so are their bowel patterns. If you suspect constipation in your newborn, monitor their stools and never use a laxative without talking to your pediatrician first.
Inhaled and Intranasal Corticosteroids and Your Child
If your child has asthma or allergic rhinitis (hay fever), your pediatrician may prescribe a corticosteroid, also commonly referred to as a steroid. These medicines are the best available to decrease the swelling and irritation (inflammation) that occurs with persistent asthma or allergy. They are not the same as the anabolic steroids that are used illegally by some athletes to build muscles.
Is Your Toddler Communicating With You?
Your baby is able to communicate with you long before he or she speaks a single word! A baby's cry, smile, and responses to you help you to understand his or her needs. In this publication the American Academy of Pediatrics shares information about how children communicate and what to do when there are concerns about delays in development.
Jaundice and Your Newborn
Congratulations on the birth of your new baby!
Keep Your Family Safe: Fire Safety and Burn Prevention at Home
Fires and burns cause almost 4,000 deaths and about 20,000 hospitalizations every year. Winter is an especially dangerous time, as space heaters, fireplaces, and candles get more use in the home. It is no surprise that fires in the home are more common between December and February. However, you might be surprised at how easy it is to reduce the risk of fire in your home. Follow these suggestions to help keep your home and family safe from fire all year round.
Lead Is a Poison: What You Need to Know
Lead in the body can affect child development and behavior. Lead is a metal that is found in a lot of places. Though you can't usually see it, there are things you can do to prevent your child from being exposed to lead. No safe level of lead has been identified for children. Children are at highest risk because they often put their hands and objects in their mouths, and their growing bodies tend to easily absorb what they eat. This publication was written by the American Academy of Pediatrics to help parents understand how lead can be harmful, where it may be found, and what they can do to keep their children safe.
Lyme Disease
Lyme disease is an important public health problem in some areas of the United States. Since its discovery in Lyme, CT, in 1975, thousands of cases of the disease have been reported across the United States and around the world. By knowing more about the disease and how to prevent it, you can help keep your family safe from the effects of Lyme disease.
Magnetic Toy Dangers
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: In recent years, more and more toys are being developed that put to use powerful magnetic pieces. If a child were to swallow these magnets, serious internal damage could result. Be sure to monitor your children when they play with magnetic toys.
Managing Air Swallowing and Burping
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Parents know it's standard procedure to burp their infant after a meal, but burps can also be necessary for toddlers and older children. Burps are caused by air swallowing, so encourage your child to eat slowly and avoid carbonated drinks.
Medicine and the Media: How to Make Sense of the Messages
Your child is sick or hurt and the first thought on your mind is, “How can I make my child better?” That's natural. No parent wants his or her child to suffer. So how do you decide what medicines to give or treatments to try?
Middle Ear Fluid and Your Child
The middle ear is the space behind the eardrum that is usually filled with air. When a child has middle ear fluid (otitis media with effusion), it means that a watery or mucus-like fluid has collected in the middle ear. Otitis media means middle ear inflammation, and effusion means fluid.
Minor Head Injuries in Children
Almost all children bump their heads every now and then. While these injuries can be upsetting, most head injuries are minor and do not cause serious problems. In very rare cases, problems can occur after a minor bump on the head. This publication was written by the American Academy of Pediatrics to help parents understand the difference between a head injury that needs only a comforting hug and one that requires immediate medical attention.
Newborn Hearing Screening and Your Baby
Before you bring your newborn home from the hospital, your baby needs to have a hearing screening.
Pacifiers and Infants
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Pacifiers have not been found to cause any physical or psychological problems. Pacifiers, however, should not replace meals. Never tie a pacifier to your child's crib or around your child's neck as this can pose a serious strangulation risk.
Parent's Guide to Insect Repellents, A
Mosquitoes, biting flies, and tick bites can make children miserable. While most children have only mild reactions to insect bites, some children can become very sick. Some insects carry dangerous germs such as West Nile virus, Lyme disease bacteria, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever bacteria.
Parent's Guide to Toy Safety, A
Children can have a lot of fun playing with their toys. However, it's important to keep in mind that safety should always come first. Each year thousands of children are injured by toys.
Parenting Your Infant
Playing Is How Toddlers Learn
Pneumococcal Infections
Pneumococcus is a type of bacteria that can attack different parts of the body and cause many serious infections including
Premature Newborns (Preemies): An Overview
One in 8 babies (12.7%) was born prematurely (less than 37 weeks’ gestation) in 2005. Of live births, 2% were born very preterm (less than 32 weeks).
Protect Your Child From Poison
Children can get very sick if they come in contact with medicines, household products, pesticides, chemicals, or cosmetics. This can happen at any age and can cause serious reactions. How­ever, most children who come in contact with these things are not perma­nently hurt if they are treated right away.
Protect Your Child…Prevent Poisoning
Young children may put anything in their mouths. This is part of learning. Many household products can be poisonous if swallowed, if in contact with the skin or eyes, or if inhaled.
Protect Yourself and Help Protect Your Baby: Information for New Moms on the Tdap Vaccine
Congratulations on your new baby! Your baby is the greatest gift you will ever receive. One of your biggest jobs as a parent is to keep your child safe and healthy. One way do this is to make sure your children get all the immunizations they need to protect them from different diseases. But did you know that there is an immunization that you as a parent should get to keep your children safe?
Protecting Your Baby From Abuse: Important Information About Preventing Brain Injuries in Infants
One of the skills parents and caregivers need to learn is how to deal with stress. This is especially important when there seems to be no end to a baby's crying. Too often, when a parent or caregiver loses control the results can be harmful or deadly.
Ratings: Making Healthy Media Choices
Research has shown that children are influenced by what they see and hear, especially at very young ages. To help parents make informed choices about what their children see and hear, many entertainment companies use ratings systems. Ratings give parents more information about the content of television (TV) programs, movies, music, or computer and video games. Read on for more information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about ratings and how you can help your children make healthy media choices.
Right From the Start: ABCs of Good Nutrition for Young Children
As a parent, you are interested in your child's health. Your role is to provide healthy food in appropriate portions, and your child's role is to decide how much to eat. That is why it is important to understand how to provide healthy choices for your child.
RSV Infection
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. The virus causes fever or cough and is highly contagious. If your child is at high risk for RSV complications, take care to prevent their exposure to the virus.
RSV, Bronchiolitis, and Your Baby
RSV is the short name for respiratory syncytial virus (RES-pruh-tor-ee sin-SISH-ul VYE-ris). Almost all children get RSV at least once before they are 2 years old. For most healthy children, RSV is like a cold. But some children get very sick with RSV.
Safe Sleep and Your Baby: How Parents Can Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Suffocation
Many infants die during sleep from unsafe sleep environments. Some of these deaths are from entrapment, suffocation, and strangulation. Some infants die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). However, there are ways for parents to keep their sleeping baby safe.
Safety of Blood Transfusions
Because of illness or injury, some children need to receive transfusions of blood and blood products. This procedure may be frightening for parents and their children. Many parents are also concerned about the safety of transfusions. While blood supply in the United States is considered very safe, parents should know a few things about blood transfusions and the safety of blood products for children. Read on for more information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about blood and blood transfusions.
Seasonal Influenza (Flu)
All flu viruses cause a respiratory illness that can last a week or more. Flu symptoms include
Separation Anxiety and Sleeping
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Children ages 6 months to 2 years may suffer from separation anxiety, which is a normal stage in emotional development. Be firm in stating that they will be fine on their own, but always reassure them that you will be back soon.
SIDS and Misshapen Skulls
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: It is recommended that infants be placed on their backs when sleeping to prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS); however, you should alter the position of your child's head each night to prevent flattening of the back of the skull.
Sinusitis and Your Child
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the lining of the nose and sinuses. It is a very common infection in children.
Sleep Problems in Children
Sleep problems are very common during the first few years of life. Problems may include waking up during the night, not wanting to go to sleep, nightmares, sleepwalking, and bedwetting. If frantic upset persists with no apparent cause, call your child's doctor.
Start Reading to Your Child Early
A baby can enjoy books by 6 months of age! Here are things you can do with your child at different ages to help your child learn to love words and books.
Starting Solid Foods
Rice, oatmeal, or barley? What infant cereal or other food will be on the menu for your baby's first solid meal? And have you set a date?
Teaching Kids to Share
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Getting a child to share can be difficult, and studies have shown that children under age 3 aren't able to understand the concept of sharing. It is important that each child is given their own toys to play with and try to encourage activities that don't require toys to avoid the issue.
Temper Tantrums
It's hard for a young child to hold strong feelings inside. Young children often cry, scream, or stomp up and down when they are upset. As a parent, you may feel angry, helpless, or ashamed.
Temper Tantrums: A Normal Part of Growing Up
It's hard for young children to hold strong feelings inside. When they feel frustrated or angry, they often cry, scream, or stomp up and down. This is a temper tantrum. Temper tantrums are a normal part of your child's development. They usually begin around age 12 to 18 months, get worse between 2 and 3 years, then taper off after that, once children are able to use words to communicate their wants and needs. This publication was written by the American Academy of Pediatrics to help parents understand temper tantrums and how best to deal with them.
Thumbsucking
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Thumbsucking is a common habit, and usually is not a cause for concern unless it continues past 5 years of age or affects the shape of your child's mouth. Different methods to eliminate thumbsucking work for different children. Be patient when trying to help your child quit the habit.
Toilet Training
Teaching your child how to use the toilet takes time and patience. Each child learns to use the toilet in his or her own time. Here is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics to help guide you and your child through the process.
Tricycle Tips
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Most children are not ready to ride on a tricycle until age 3, but once they start to ride a tricycle make sure it is one that is low to the ground and with large wheels to prevent tipping. Always supervise your child when they are on a tricycle and be sure to have them wear a helmet at all times.
Understanding Irritability in Children
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Irritability can be caused by many factors, depending on the age of the child. Irritability and mood swings are normal at any age, but if your child seems to be chronically irritable, consult your pediatrician to determine if there are any underlying conditions.
Weaning to a Cup
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Getting your child to give up their bottle may be difficult, but it is important to wean your child off their bottle by age 18 months. Begin weaning at 1 year and replace a cup for a bottle in feeding in stages to make the transition smoother.
Welcome to the World of Parenting!
What Is Your One-Year-Old Telling You?
Language begins long before the first spoken words. Your child starts “telling” you things during the first year of life. Your child may say things with looks, smiles, movements, or sounds. These early messages are very important.
When Babies Fall Asleep During Feedings
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: It's natural to let your baby fall asleep while nursing from a bottle, but this is a tricky practice. This can lead your child to associate feeding with sleeping and lead them to feel that they cannot fall asleep any other way.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Pertussis, or whooping cough, is less common in young children than it used to be, as the pertussis vaccine has made most children immune. Before this vaccine was developed, there were several hundred thousand cases of whooping cough each year in the United States. Now there are approximately 1 million cases a year in the US, but these are mostly in adults and adolescents.
Window Blind Cord Dangers
A MINUTE FOR KIDS: Small children are at a high risk for entanglement and strangulation from window covering cords. Keep cords out of the reach of children at all times.
Yeast Diaper Rash (Candidiasis)
A shiny red rash, pinker than usual skin, or red bumps in the diaper area that may be caused by a yeast called Candida. There are other causes of diaper rash that produce a similar skin appearance but are not caused by an infection.
Young Children Learn A Lot When They Play
Your Baby at 2 Months
Check the milestones your child has reached by the end of 2 months. Take this with you and talk with your child’s doctor at every visit about the milestones your child has reached and what to expect next.
Your Baby at 4 Months
How your child plays, learns, speaks, and acts offers important clues about your child’s development. Developmental milestones are things most children can do by a certain age.
Your Baby at 6 Months
Check the milestones your child has reached by the end of 6 months. Take this with you and talk with your child’s doctor at every visit about the milestones your child has reached and what to expect next.
Your Baby at 9 Months
Check the milestones your child has reached by the end of 9 months. Take this with you and talk with your child’s doctor at every visit about the milestones your child has reached and what to expect next.
Your Baby's First Steps
Learning to walk takes practice. Each child will learn to coordinate and balance at different rates. You can expect some wobbling and falling down at first, but before you know it, your child will be running circles around you.
Your Baby's Head Shape: Information for Parents on Positional Skull Deformities
Many parents wonder if the shape of their newborn's head is normal. Maybe it seems a bit flat in the back or uneven on one side. Most of these slight imperfections happen when infants spend too much time in one position such as in a crib, a car safety seat, or an infant carrier. The good news is that most of the time the shape of the head returns to normal on its own by simply changing your baby's position regularly. This publication was written by the American Academy of Pediatrics to answer questions from parents about their newborn's head shape.
Your Child and the Environment
Environmental dangers are everywhere. Most of these dangers are more harmful to children than adults. However, there are things you can do to reduce your child's contact with them. Read more to learn about how to protect your family from environmental dangers.
Your Child at 1 Year
How your child plays, learns, speaks, and acts offers important clues about your child’s development. Developmental milestones are things most children can do by a certain age.
Your Child at 18 Months (1½ Years)
How your child plays, learns, speaks, and acts offers important clues about your child’s development. Developmental milestones are things most children can do by a certain age.
Your Child at 2 Years
How your child plays, learns, speaks, and acts offers important clues about your child’s development. Developmental milestones are things most children can do by a certain age.
Your Child is on the Move: Reduce the Risk of Gun Injury
Your Child’s First Vaccines
Signs and symptoms include a thick coating in the back of the throat that can make it hard to breathe.